The word Yadnya is so close to the Hindus. It cannot be separated in the Hindus’ daily life. But what is Yadnya actually?
The meaning of Yadnya can be divided into two, the wider and the narrower meaning. Yadnya in the wider meaning means every act which is done in sincere and conscious that it is offered to God. For the narrower meaning, Yadnya means an offering, worship, holy sacrifice which is often related with Banten (means in the Balinese offerings which is usually made from young coconut leaves, and containing fruits, flowers, leaves, betel vine, foods, cakes, and sesari – a little money as an offering).
There are five parts of Yadnya. They are; Dewa Yadnya (sincere offering to God and Dities), Pitra Yadnya (sincere offering to parents), Rsi Yadnya (sincere offering to teachers), Manusa Yadnya (sincere offering to others – among men), and Bhuta Yadnya (sincere offering to the nature – includes animals and plants).
What makes Yadnya important to do for the Hindus?
In the Hindus’ belief there are three obligations which belong to the human since they were born. The three obligations are; Dewa Rna (obligation to the God), Pitra Rna (obligation to the parents), Rsi Rna (obligation to the teachers). God gives men foods through His other creatures like animals and plants. He gives air to breath, gives sun, rain, and water for the human life. Morally men owe lots of things to God. Through parents children were born to this world and were taken care, that makes the debt to parents, and the obligation to teacher occurs because they teach students many things about life, about things that they can use to survive. So, Dewa Yadnya and Bhuta Yadnya are used to pay the debt to God and His other creatures, Pitra Yadnya and Manusa Yadnya are used to repay parents’ kindness, and Rsi Yadnya is used to pay the knowledge that is given by the teachers. It is hoped that through Yadnya those obligations could be repaid so the people (the Hindus) can reach the highest spiritual achievement (Moksa).
Actually Yadnya is often applied in the daily life. When you let your finger cross before having your cuisine it means that you offer the food to God as praise. When you learn hard at school, at home in order to gain good score, you have appreciated your teacher. When you love your parents, listen and do their advices, take care of them when they are getting older, so you have done Pitra Yadnya. And when you water your plants and flowers at home regularly, you do not hunt wild animals in the forest, so you have done Bhuta Yadnya. But due to the misperception of the meaning where Yadnya is commonly considered related to Banten, people do not see those simple things as Yadnya. So, not only the Hindus who can do Yadnya but the whole people in the world also can apply it.